Protocols for Footprint Casts

Protocols for Footprint Casts

1. When considering submitting Footprint Casts to the Evidence Review Board there are things that will be required from the person submitting the cast to the Evidence Review

Board:

a. There will be a questionnaire that will need to be filled out. It should be fully filled out and if something doesn't apply it needs to be so stated. Some of the questions may be of a personal nature and any confidential information collected about locations, names of the landowners and other pertinent information collected to do the analysis will not be included in the reports.

b. With the questionnaire, the person submitting should include photos or a video of the print before and during the casting.

c. The cast. (Submitters may refer to the document entitled “Casting, Packaging, and Transporting Footprint Casts”.)

d. An accurate location of where the footprint was found will be needed. None of this information will be released to anyone outside the members of the Review Board. This will make it easier to verify the area could sustain an animal like Sasquatch as well as being able to research if there is other known activity in the area.

2. The credibility of the person submitting evidence will be taken into consideration. Any research organizations and related associated groups will be helpful. A phone number and email address will also be required. Some of the board members may call and talk to the submitter in person if there are questions. Any false information will make for an automatic dismissal of the review process.

3. One thing to remember is that the Evidence Review Board does these reviews in their spare time, so it can be a slow process. The Board will do all they can to get it done quickly after submission, but with family, jobs, and other things that normal people have, it may take a while.

4. After the MABRC has concluded the review, a report will be written and released in the manner as stated. The MABRC will be posting the report on its website in the appropriate area that is open to the public to view with ALL credit given to the submitter and any group affiliations.

5. The entire purpose for the Review Board is to make a public database of suspected Bigfoot evidence. With these animals being as complex as they appear to be, all credible evidence collected will hopefully help to prove the existence of the species. Any and all of the decisions of the Review Board will be made on the evidence submitted. And if in the future any new evidence comes forth to make a stronger or weaker case for the submitted evidence, the Review Board reserves the right to change the decision of the original submission, if warranted.

6. Although the Board cannot positively confirm any footprint casts as being made by a Sasquatch, there are a number of criterion that will be used by the Board to eliminate other possibilities, particularly misidentification of human prints and intentional hoaxes.

7. The Evidence Review Board considered a number of resources pertaining to possible

Sasquatch footprints, including information from various websites and specialists. Based on information gleaned from the websites and specialists, the following criteria will be used when evaluating possible footprint casts submitted to the Board for evaluation:

·         Footprint length – the Board will accept footprint casts for evaluation if the length is within the expected range of 14-20”. Prints outside the expected range could still be valid prints but will not be accepted and evaluated by the Board because there are too many other possibilities to consider, outside the expertise of the Board.

·         Footprint shape – the Board will accept footprint casts for evaluation if criterion and the shape of the print is of an entire foot and contains little to no evidence of an arch. Prints with other shapes, and prints with pronounced arches will not be accepted and evaluated by the Board because there are too many other possibilities to consider, outside the expertise of the Board.

·          Phalanges (Toe) alignment to others on the same foot – the Board will accept footprint casts for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and the tips of the Phalanges are aligned. If the number two or number three Phalange is longer than the others, then the print will not be accepted and evaluated because there are too many other possibilities to consider outside the expertise of the Board.

·         Calcaneus (heel) width – The Board will accept footprint casts for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and the Calcaneus width is 4-5/8” or larger. Prints with narrower Calcaneus widths will not be accepted and evaluated by the Board because there are too many other possibilities and anomalies to consider, outside the expertise of the Board.

·         Ratio of Calcaneus width to total foot length – The Board will accept footprint casts for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and the ration of the Calcaneus width to toal foot length is .30 or greater. If the ratio is less than expected, the print will not be accepted and evaluated by the Board because there are too many other possibilities and anomalies to consider, outside the expertise of the Board.

·         Size of pads of Phalanges (toe pads) compared to others on the same foot – The Board will accept the footprint cast for evaluation if it meets all of the prior criteria. The Board will expect the size of all pads to be fairly close to the others of the same foot. If each pad is progressively smaller from the Hallux to the fifth Phalange (big toe to the little toe) then any further analysis will be discontinued and a “Qualified Opinion” will be rendered, stating the print met some but not all of the expected criteria.

·         Bending at the Tarsometatarsal joint (mid-tarsal break) – The Board will accept the footprint cast for evaluation if it meets all of the prior criteria. The Board will expect there to be evidence of bending in the middle of the foot. If there is no evidence of bending in the middle of the foot, then any further analysis will be discontinued and a “Qualified Opinion” will be rendered.

·         Depth of impression - The Board will accept the footprint cast for evaluation all of the prior criteria. The Board will expect there to be evidence that the depth of the impression will be deeper than a human on the same ground surface. The Board will consider information contained in the questionnaire and photos of the print, including estimated soil hardness, compression of material under the footprint, track deterioration, and other information in determining if the footprint cast may have met this criterion. If the cast does not meet this criterion, further evaluation will be discontinued and an opinion will be rendered.

·         Location where print was found – After the above criteria have been met, the Board will be interested in the location where the print was found. The Board expects the print to be discovered in a place unlikely for a print to be found (off the main trail, away from easy human access.)The Board will consider information contained in the questionnaire and in the photos of the print. If the footprint was found in a place likely to be found, further evaluation will be discontinued and an opinion will be rendered.

·         Sesamoid pads (Ball of foot) – After meeting the above criteria, the cast will be examined for the presence of a secondary pad on the bottom of the foot near the fourth and fifth sesamoid bone. If the cast does not contain this criterion, further evaluation will be discontinued and an opinion will be rendered.

·         Evidence of Phalange (toe) flexibility – The board expects to see evidence in multiple prints in a single trackway to display Phalanges that are splayed and in different positions in successive prints of a trackway, and other evidence of a considerable range of abduction. If the cast and photos do not contain this criterion, further evaluation will be discontinued and an opinion will be rendered.

·         Presence of dermal ridges – If there are swirls and lines on the toes and the bottoms of the foot, the Board expects these “dermal ridges” to run the length of the foot, and to be approximately twice the size as dermal ridges in a human foot. If dermal ridges are present but run across the foot left to right (horizontally), this is evidence of a human foot and may be a hoax. If the dermal ridges are slanted diagonally across the foot, this is evidence of a great ape foot and may be a hoax. After examining this criterion, the Board will render an opinion.

8. Based on the analysis, the Board will formulate a response and an opinion that will be cited in the final report.

9. The footprint cast(s) will be returned to the person who submitted it for evaluation.

Appendix

Exhibit I – Sasquatch and Human Footprint Comparison

Exhibit II – Sasquatch Footprint with Secondary Sesamoid Pad

Exhibit III – Footprint Track Deterioration Over Time

Exhibit IV – Material Compression in Strata Under Footprint

Exhibit V – Soil Hardness Scale

Exhibit VI – Impact and compression ridges

Exhibit VII - Board Evaluation Worksheet

 

Protocols for flat Fingerprint images

Protocols for flat Fingerprint images

When considering submitting Fingerprint images to the Evidence Review Board there are things that will be required from the person submitting the image to the Evidence Review Board:

a. There will be a questionnaire that will need to be filled out. It should be fully filled out and if something doesn't apply it needs to be so stated. Some of the questions may be of a personal nature and any confidential information collected about locations, names of the landowners and other pertinent information collected to do the analysis will not be included in the reports.

b. With the questionnaire, the person submitting should include photos or a video of the fingerprint with photo scales from various angles. If the object with the fingerprint is small and portable enough, the object with the print intact may be accepted by the Board, but is not required.

c. A precise description of where the fingerprint was found and a description of the surface on which the print was located will be needed. (E.g., kitchen window-glass, left side of car on rear quarter panel, roof of car, etc.)

d. A precise description of how the print was oriented when the fingerprint was found will be needed. (E.g., left hand with fingers pointed up, right hand with fingers pointed 45-degrees to the right, etc.)

e. A general description will be needed of how, why or under what circumstances the submitter thinks the Sasquatch placed the print on the object where the print was found. (E.g., appeared like the subject placed hands against window while peering inside the kitchen, handprint on roof of car appeared left hand was placed on roof while subject was leaning over looking inside the vehicle, etc.)

f. The exact geographical location of where the Fingerprint was found will be needed. None of this information will be released to anyone outside the members of the Review Board. This will make it easier to verify the area could sustain an animal like Sasquatch as well as being able to research if there is other known activity in the area.

2. The credibility of the person submitting evidence will be taken into consideration. Any research organizations and related associated groups will be helpful. A phone number and email address will also be required. Some of the board members may call and talk to the submitter in person if there are questions. Any false information will make for an automatic dismissal of the review process.

3. One thing to remember is that the Evidence Review Board does these reviews in their spare time, so it can be a slow process. The Board will do all they can to get it done quickly after submission, but with family, jobs, and other things that normal people have, it may take a while.

4. After the MABRC Board has concluded the review, a report will be written and released in the manner as stated. The report will be posted on the MABRC website in the appropriate area that is open to the public to view with ALL credit given to the submitter and any group affiliations.

5. The entire purpose for the Review Board is to make a public database of suspected Bigfoot evidence. With these animals being as complex as they appear to be, all credible evidence collected will hopefully help to prove the existence of the species. Any and all of the decisions of the Review Board will be made on the evidence submitted. And if in the future any new evidence comes forth to make a stronger or weaker case for the submitted evidence, the Review Board reserves the right to change the decision of the original submission, if warranted.

6. Although the Board cannot positively confirm any Fingerprint images as being made by a Sasquatch, there are a number of criterion that will be used by the Board to eliminate other possibilities, particularly misidentification of human prints and intentional hoaxes.

7. The Evidence Review Board considered a number of resources pertaining to possible Sasquatch Fingerprints, including information from various websites and specialists. Based on information gleaned from the websites and specialists, the following criteria will be used when evaluating possible Fingerprint images submitted to the Board for evaluation:

·         Size – the Board will accept a fingerprint image for evaluation if the print appears to be at least twice the size of a human fingerprint. Fingerprints outside the expected range could still be valid prints but will not be accepted and evaluated by the Board because there are too many other possibilities to consider, outside the expertise of the Board.

·         Dermal (Friction) Ridges are visible - the Board will accept a fingerprint image for evaluation if it meets the prior criterion and any dermal ridges are visible. The ridges should be perpendicular to the long axis of the finger and may contain arches or loops, but not whorls.

·         Approximate distance between ridges – the Board will accept a fingerprint image for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and the distance between ridges is approximately 2 mm and gets narrower towards the tips.

·         Ridge width compared to furrows - the Board will accept a fingerprint image for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and the ridges are wider than the furrows, the ridges appear rounded at the tops, and the bottom of the furrows appear u-shaped.

·         Scarring – the Board will accept a fingerprint image for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and if scarring is present, the ridges at the scar angles inward towards the center of the print.

8. Based on the analysis, the Board will formulate a response and an opinion that will be cited in the final report.

9. The fingerprint evidence will be returned to the person who submitted it for evaluation or discarded per the submitter’s instructions.

10. List of Exhibits

·         Exhibit I - Examples of major fingerprint types (arch, loop, whorl)

·         Exhibit II - Table showing fingerprint characteristics (minutiae)

·         Exhibit III - Example of a fingerprint with characteristics (minutiae) notated

·         Exhibit IV - Information from the MABRC Guidelines Manual pertaining to

lifting latent fingerprints

·         Exhibit V - Marking and preservation of fingerprint evidence

·         Exhibit VI – Board Evaluation Worksheet – Flat Fingerprints

Exhibit I

Examples of major fingerprint types (arch, loop, whorl)

Exhibit II

Table showing fingerprint characteristics (minutiae)

Exhibit III

Example of a fingerprint with characteristics (minutiae) notated

 

Exhibit IV

Information from the MABRC Guidelines Manual - lifting latent fingerprints

The intention behind the guidance given by the MABRC on latent print collection is not to train researchers to be latent print examiners, nor to be crime scene investigators. Rather the guidance provided here is to give researchers a means of using makeshift equipment and proper protocols in the effort to successfully collect latent prints of suspected Sasquatch should the opportunity present itself.

Researchers should be aware that it is difficult at best, to substitute for professional fingerprint equipment, however the technique and guidance provided here can successfully lift latent prints under good conditions.

The list of supplies that a researcher will need a very simple and inexpensive.

-- A small, empty squeeze bottle (similar to an eye drop bottle, preferably with a screw off top)

-- A bright flashlight

-- A two inch wide roll of clear tape

-- A black or dark colored plastic sheet (transparency sheets work perfectly)

-- A fine powder such as talc or cake flour

-- A camera lens brush with fine hair at one end, and a bulb at the other end (similar to a mini turkey boaster)

Researchers should be aware that the probability of encountering a Sasquatch print that is suitable to be lifted is minimal, and more than likely will either be encountered on a window, vehicle surface, or other nonporous surfaces. Prints will most readily be apparent after the surface has been coated in a fine dust, such as a vehicle that was used in field research.

Researchers should follow the following protocol in order to minimize contaminating the print, and aid in the successful recovery of the observed sample.

1. Photograph the print or hand mark of the surface prior to conducting any attempt at recovery. The use of a photographic scale or other measuring device is vital in the attempt to document the print.

2. If the print is difficult to see, attempt to use the flashlight at different angles in order to highlight the print for photographing. Dependent upon the camera the researcher uses, a flash may or may not be needed.

3. Take several photos from various angles and distances.

4. Annotate in your research journal what the photo is of. (The researcher may need to describe what is in the photo for later recollection.)

5. The researcher should now put on a pair of powder free latex or nitrile gloves in order to prevent contaminating the print, or worse yet, leaving one of his/her own, and lifting it as the specimen.

6. The small squeeze bottle should be filled approximately one-third to one-half full of the fine powder. It is imperative that the bottle be capped after every use in order to prevent moisture from absorbing into the powder and making it difficult to use. (A cheap trick to prevent moisture from sticking the powder together is to add a little dry, white rice to bottle)

7. Firmly shake the bottle a few times in order create a dust within the bottle, then remove the cap and softly squeeze the bottle away from the suspected print.

8. Pay attention to how much dust comes out of the bottle when squeezed, and at what direction the air is carrying the dust. Seldom is the air completely still, so pay attention to the direction it flows, and how fast it settles.

9. Once you have determined the air flow direction, the rate of descent of the dust, and how much dust exits the bottle with each squeeze, move to the opposite side of the print from which the air is flowing.

10. Softly squeeze the bottle and attempt to drift the dust onto the print. The key here is to lightly dust the print with powder, but not so much that the surface is obscured. (This is something that you can practice with at home before going to the field)

(If more powder is needed to dust the print, ensure that you continue to shake the bottle before squeezing it)

11. Using the lens brush, softly squeeze the bulb in order to blow air out the brush, and blow away any excess powder. Ensure that the brush DOES NOT touch the print at this point.

12. Use the flashlight from various angles to check and see if a print is visible under the powder.

13. If a print is apparent, but not clear, delicately use just the tip of the brush and softly brush it across the print to further remove any excess powder. Extreme care should be used on this step as it is very easy to destroy a print using the brush.

14. Using the roll of tape, start the tape and double back the end in order to make it easier to remove later.

15. Tack the beginning edge of the tape approximately two inches past the print, and with one hand controlling the tape roll, use the other hand to secure the tape to the surface.

16. Using one finger, slide it down the non-adhesive side of the tape, securing it to the surface and the roll of tape is maintained taut using the other hand. It is vital that the tape not have any kink, wrinkles, or air bubbles under it as it is secured to the surface.

17. Once the tape has been secured successfully two inches past the print, cut the tape and secure the end to the surface.

18. Using the transparency, or other similar dark material, cut a piece that is approximately one inch larger on all sides than the print that is attempting to be lifted.

19. If using a transparency that has been printed on, ensure to use the opposite side which will be shiny and non-porous. It should be noted that paper does not serve as a good medium when using this method.

20. Place the “card” near the tape and use the fingers of one hand to secure the flat end of the tape to the surface.  Using the other hand, grasp the doubled tag of tape and slowly begin to peel it from the surface. Ensure that the tape is peeled back smoothly, firmly, and evenly as it is very easy to ruin a print at this point.

21. Once the tape has been removed and is secured using both hands, tack the flat end of the tape back to the surface and to one end of the “card” simultaneously.

22. Using one hand to control the tape, use one finger of the other hand to firmly slide against the non-adhesive side of the tape working your way up the card.  Ensure that the tape is secured to the card smoothly, evenly and firmly. Kinks, wrinkles, or air bubbles can destroy the print.

23. Once the tape is completely secured to the “card”, remove it from the surface and trim any excess tape from all four sides.

24. Using a label, place it on the back of the card and label it with the appropriate tag number. Once this is done, fill out the specimen collection form and label it with the tag number from the print, and add this tag number to your research journal entry.

The researcher should be aware that usually a print is not able to be lifted again, once it has been compromised by the tape. Additionally, if there is more than one print lifted from the same location, each print will receive a different tag number, however only one specimen collection form is needed, but do include all the tag numbers from all samples on that form. All tag numbers should also be entered into your journal entry.

Exhibit V

Marking and preservation of fingerprint evidence

Marking of Latent Fingerprint Evidence

1. All such evidence should be marked in some distinctive manner, such as is the case with any other type of physical evidence. Precautions should be taken, when marking evidence, not to damage or destroy potential latent fingerprints.

2. Lifted, developed latents should also be marked or sealed in marked envelopes.

3. Photograph-developed latents with and without identifying markings and scale.

Preservation of Fingerprint Evidence

1. The primary precaution in all cases is the prevention of adding to evidence, or of destroying those already present.

2. Most fingerprints submitted will be on paper, glass, metal, or other smooth surfaced objects. When articles containing latents must be picked up, touch as little as possible, and then only in areas least likely to contain identifiable latents, such as rough surfaces.

3. While gloves or handkerchiefs may be used to pick up such exhibits, any unnecessary contact should be avoided. Although using a cloth to pick up exhibits prevents leaving additional prints on the articles, the cloth will frequently wipe off or smear any prints originally present, unless great care is taken.

4. Large articles containing latent such as glass, metal articles, and firearms should be placed on wood or heavy cardboard and fastened down with string to prevent shifting and contact with other objects in transit. Where such evidence is to be examined frequently, a pegboard should be obtained on which wooden pegs can be moved as desired to support exhibits and keep them from moving. Bottles and glasses may be placed vertically on a board and placed in the bottom of a box. The base of the bottle or glass can be surrounded with nails to hold it in place, and the top can be either inserted through a hole in a piece of cardboard or held in position with a wooden board nailed to the container's lid.

Papers and documents containing latent prints should be placed individually in a cellophane or manila envelope. Such a container can be sandwiched between two sheets of stiff cardboard, wrapped, and placed in a box for mailing.

Exhibit VI

 

Board Evaluation Worksheet – Flat Fingerprints

Protocols for Hair Samples

Protocols for Hair Samples

1. When considering submitting Hair samples to the Evidence Review Board there are things that will be required from the person submitting the hair sample to the Evidence Review Board:

a. There will be a questionnaire that will need to be filled out. It should be fully filled out and if something doesn't apply it needs to be so stated. Some of the questions may be of a personal nature and any confidential information collected about locations, names of the landowners and other pertinent information collected to do the analysis will not be included in the reports.

b. With the questionnaire, the person submitting should include photos of the evidence with a scale for reference.

c. The Hair Sample, enclosed in an envelope, with identification and description inside the envelope.

d. An accurate location of where the hair sample was found will be needed. None of this information will be released to anyone outside the members of the Review Board. This will make it easier to verify the area could sustain an animal like Sasquatch as well as being able to research if there is other known activity in the area.

2. The credibility of the person submitting evidence will be taken into consideration. Any research organizations and related associated groups will be helpful. A phone number and email address will also be required. Some of the board members may call and talk to the submitter in person if there are questions. Any false information will make for an automatic dismissal of the review process.

3. One thing to remember is that the Evidence Review Board does these reviews in their spare time, so it can be a slow process. The Board will do all they can to get it done quickly after submission, but with family, jobs, and other things that normal people have, it may take a while.

4. After the MABRC has concluded the review, a report will be written and released in the manner as stated. The MABRC will be posting the report on its website in the appropriate area that is open to the public to view with ALL credit given to the submitter and any group affiliations.

5. The entire purpose for the Review Board is to make a public database of suspected Bigfoot evidence. With these animals being as complex as they appear to be, all credible evidence collected will hopefully help to prove the existence of the species. Any and all of the decisions of the Review Board will be made on the evidence submitted. And if in the future any new evidence comes forth to make a stronger or weaker case for the submitted evidence, the Review Board reserves the right to change the decision of the original submission, if warranted.

6. Although the Board cannot positively confirm any hair samples as having come from a Sasquatch, there are a number of criterion that will be used by the Board to eliminate other possibilities, particularly misidentification of human hair, identifiable animal hair and intentional hoaxes.

7. The Evidence Review Board considered a number of resources pertaining to possible Sasquatch hair samples, including information from various websites and specialists. Based on information gleaned from the websites and specialists, the following criteria will be used when evaluating possible hair samples submitted to the Board for evaluation:

·         Color before magnification – The Board will expect the color to conform to natural colors found on other animals. Most should be black to reddish brown, or grays to whites. Any unnaturally colored hair samples will not be accepted.

·         Shaft length – The Board will consider the shaft length when in the range of .3 -15 inches.  However, hair samples will not be rejected due to lengths outside this range.

·         Uniformity of thickness of shaft – The Board will consider if hair tapers from the root to the tip or if it is of uniform thickness from root to the tip. This criterion helps distinguish animals and humans.

·         Shape at distal end of shaft – The Board will examine the tip of the hair for evidence of natural tapering versus having been cut. If the hair was cut, it will automatically be eliminated from evaluation.

·         Color under magnification – The Board acknowledges most presumed Sasquatch air samples appear to have a reddish tinge under magnification, regardless of color before magnification. However, color will not be a basis for elimination if there is no evidence of artificial coloring.

·         Shaft thickness in microns – The Board expects Sasquatch hair samples to be in the thickness range of 40-90 microns and will disqualify any samples outside the expected range.

·         Presence of any artificial treatment – The Board expects there to be no evidence of any artificial hair treatments detected in the hair sample. Any evidence of hair sprays, gels, cosmetics or dyes will result in automatic disqualification.

·         Outer cuticle margin – The Board expects the “scale pattern” to be similar to primates, including human. The variety of scale patterns are indicative of many animals and are often used to positively identify a species.

·         Medulla presence – The Board acknowledges most presumed Sasquatch hair samples have no medulla, whereas most animals have a continuous medulla.  Humans may have a continuous, fragmented, or absent medulla. The human blonde hair does not have a medulla. If a medulla is present the sample will not qualify as a possible Sasquatch hair.

·         The Board may send hair samples to other professionals to examine, including medical physicians, anthropologists, university professionals, forensics specialists, or laboratories that specialize in analyzing and identifying hair samples. Any fees associated with analysis will be the responsibility of the submitter. Permission to incur fees will be obtained in advance.

8. Based on the analysis, the Board will formulate a response and an opinion that will be cited in the final report.

9. The sample(s) will be returned to the person who submitted it for evaluation or discarded according to the submitter’s instructions, unless DNA testing or other laboratory analyses resulted in destruction of the sample.

10. Exhibits

·         Exhibit I - Board Evaluation Worksheet – Hair Samples

·         Exhibit II – Diagram of a hair with parts notated

Exhibit I

Board Evaluation Worksheet – Hair Samples

Exhibit II

Diagram of Hair with parts notated

 

Protocols for flat Handprint images

Protocols for flat Handprint images

1. When considering submitting Handprint images to the Evidence Review Board there are things that will be required from the person submitting the image to the Evidence Review Board:

a. There will be a questionnaire that will need to be filled out. It should be fully filled out and if something doesn't apply it needs to be so stated. Some of the questions may be of a personal nature and any confidential information collected about locations, names of the landowners and other pertinent information collected to do the analysis will not be included in the reports.

b. With the questionnaire, the person submitting should include photos or a video of the handprint with photo scales from various angles. If the object with the handprint is small and portable enough, the object with the print intact may be accepted by the Board, but is not required.

c. A precise description of where the handprint was found and a description of the surface on which the print was located will be needed. (E.g., kitchen window-glass, left side of car on rear quarter panel, roof of car, etc.)

d. A precise description of how the print was oriented when the handprint was found will be needed. (E.g., left hand with fingers pointed up, right hand with fingers pointed 45-degrees to the right, etc.)

e. A general description will be needed of how, why or under what circumstances the submitter thinks the Sasquatch placed the print on the object where the print was found. (E.g., appeared like the subject placed hands against window while peering inside the kitchen, handprint on roof of car appeared left hand was placed on roof while subject was leaning over looking inside the vehicle, etc.)

f. The exact geographical location of where the Handprint was found will be needed. None of this information will be released to anyone outside the members of the Review Board. This will make it easier to verify the area could sustain an animal like Sasquatch as well as being able to research if there is other known activity in the area.

2. The credibility of the person submitting evidence will be taken into consideration. Any research organizations and related associated groups will be helpful. A phone number and email address will also be required. Some of the board members may call and talk to the submitter in person if there are questions. Any false information will make for an automatic dismissal of the review process.

3. One thing to remember is that the Evidence Review Board does these reviews in their spare time, so it can be a slow process. The Board will do all they can to get it done quickly after submission, but with family, jobs, and other things that normal people have, it may take a while.

4. After the MABRC Board has concluded the review, a report will be written and released in the manner as stated. The report will be posted on the MABRC website in the appropriate area that is open to the public to view with ALL credit given to the submitter and any group affiliations.

5. The entire purpose for the Review Board is to make a public database of suspected Bigfoot evidence. With these animals being as complex as they appear to be, all credible evidence collected will hopefully help to prove the existence of the species. Any and all of the decisions of the Review Board will be made on the evidence submitted. And if in the future any new evidence comes forth to make a stronger or weaker case for the submitted evidence, the Review Board reserves the right to change the decision of the original submission, if warranted.

6. Although the Board cannot positively confirm any Handprint images as being made by a Sasquatch, there are a number of criterion that will be used by the Board to eliminate other possibilities, particularly misidentification of human prints and intentional hoaxes.

7. The Evidence Review Board considered a number of resources pertaining to possible Sasquatch Handprints, including information from various websites and specialists. Based on information gleaned from the websites and specialists, the following criteria will be used when evaluating possible Handprint images submitted to the Board for evaluation:

·         Overall length of Hand – the Board will accept a handprint evaluation if the length of the hand, measured from the wrist to the tip of the middle finger, is in the range of 11-14 inches. Handprints outside the expected range could still be valid prints but will not be accepted and evaluated by the Board because there are too many other possibilities to consider, outside the expertise of the Board.

·         Width of the flexor/anterior surface (palm) of the hand – the Board will accept a handprint image for evaluation if it meets the prior criterion and the width of the palm, measured across the base of the four fingers, is in the range of 6-12 inches. Handprints outside the expected range could still be valid prints but will not be accepted and evaluated by the Board because there are too many other possibilities to consider, outside the expertise of the Board.

·         Ratio of phalanges (finger) length to flexor/anterior surface of the hand (palm) – the Board will accept a handprint image for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and the ratio of finger length to the palm in the range .28 -.32. Handprints outside the expected range could still be valid prints but will not be accepted and evaluated by the Board because there are too many other possibilities to consider, outside the expertise of the Board.

·         Longitudinal crease in the flexor/anterior surface of the hand (palm) – the Board will accept a handprint image for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and there is no evidence (or very short and not pronounced) of a crease in the palm around the base of the thumb. Handprint images with transverse crease(s) elsewhere on the palm may be accepted.

·         Pollex (thumb) location on the hand - the Board will accept a handprint image for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and the thumb location is closer to the wrist than a human hand.

·         Pollex (thumb) orientation – Opposability - the Board will accept a handprint image for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and the thumb appears to be facing the same direction as the fingers (evidencing non-opposability of the thumb.)

·         Pollex (thumb) length – the Board will accept a handprint image for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and thumb length is similar in length of the other fingers.

·         Phalanges (finger) width – the Board will accept a handprint image for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and the fingers are approximately the same width as the others on the same hand.

·         3rd digit length as percentage of the overall hand length – the Board will accept a handprint image for evaluation if it meets the prior criteria and the middle finger length is 30% or less of the entire hand length.

·         Transverse crease in palm - after the above criteria have been met, the Board will be interested in examining the image for evidence of any transverse creases, starting between the second and third fingers and ending at the outside edge of the palm.

·         Pollex felon(pad on the anterior surface of the thumb; “thumb pad”) -  after all the above criteria have been met, the Board will be interested in examining the image for any evidence of a thick thumb pad.

·         Flexion in phalanges (fingers) – after all of the above criteria have been met, the Board will be interested in examining the image for evidence each finger seems to be in the same amount of flexion, evidencing minimal flexion.

·         Plica Interdigitalis (webbing between fingers) – after all of the above criteria have been met, the Board will be interested in examining the image for evidence of extensive webbing between fingers.

·         Fingerprints – after all of the above criteria have been met, he board will be interested in examining the image for dermal (friction) ridges on the pads of the fingers.

8. Based on the analysis, the Board will formulate a response and an opinion that will be cited in the final report.

9. The handprint evidence will be returned to the person who submitted it for evaluation or discarded per the submitter’s instructions.

10. Exhibit

·         Exhibit I: Board Evaluation Worksheet – Flat Handprints

Exhibit I

 

Board Evaluation Worksheet – Flat Handprints

Protocol Examining Other Physical Evidence

Protocol Examining Other Physical Evidence

1. Collect and place the evidence in the appropriate type of container, depending on the type of evidence.

·         Most items of evidence will be collected in paper containers such as packets, envelopes, and bags.

·         Liquid items can be transported in non-breakable, leak-proof containers.

·         Moist or wet evidence (blood, plants, etc.) can be collected in plastic containers at the scene and transported back to an evidence receiving area if the storage time in plastic is two hours or less and this is done to prevent contamination of other evidence. Once in a secure location, wet evidence, whether packaged in plastic or paper, must be removed and allowed to completely air dry. That evidence can then be repackaged in a new, dry paper container. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD EVIDENCE CONTAINING MOISTURE BE PACKAGED IN PLASTIC OR PAPER CONTAINERS FOR MORE THAN TWO HOURS. Moisture allows the growth of microorganisms which can destroy or alter evidence.

2. Documenting "chain of custody"

If the potential evidence turns out to be important evidence, scientists will want to know who found it, where it was found, who have handled it since it was first found, etc. This info will be needed by the DNA lab as well.

Follow these steps for documenting the Chain of Custody

a. Write the name, address, phone number of the owner of the evidence, a brief description of where it was found, who found it, and date originally found on an index card or a piece of paper.

b. Put the item and the written information in a paper envelope

c. Put the first envelope, containing the written information and the evidence, inside a second, larger envelope.

d. Write the date on the outside of the second, larger envelope and sign your signature next to the date.

e. Every time anyone opens the envelope, make sure they date and sign the outside envelope.

f. Try to keep the evidence in your possession and in eyesight at all times. Treat it like a valuable diamond - you wouldn't want someone stealing it or tampering with it.

3. Take many photographs of the evidentiary material with good lighting, from various angles, with a ruler in the photos showing the size.

4. When possible, try to locate a local expert to examine the potential evidence.

·         A local dentist, veterinarian, college professor, or person who has the equipment and expertise, may be used to initially investigate the item, and determine if the item is associated with canine, ursus, any other indigenous animal, or from a human donor. If that person can conclusively identify the item, and the item is not remarkable, then further examination and evaluation may not be necessary.

·         If the identity of the item is remarkable or uncertain, the item may be sent to the MABRC Evidence Review Board.

5. Sending potential evidence to the MABRC Evidence Review Board

A section of the MABRC website has been reserved for Evidence Review. On that part of the website will be instructions for contacting the Board, address, packaging and shipping instructions, and information about what documentation will be required when evidence is sent to the Board.

a. There will be a questionnaire that will need to be filled out. It should be fully filled out and if something doesn't apply it needs to be so stated. Some of the questions may be of a personal nature and any confidential information collected about locations, names of the landowners and other pertinent information collected to do the analysis will not be included in the reports.

b. With the questionnaire, the person submitting should include photos or a video of the evidence material

c. The evidence material properly packaged and protected from damages.

d. An accurate location of where the evidence material was found will be needed. None of this information will be released to anyone outside the members of the Review Board. This will make it easier to verify the area could sustain an animal like Sasquatch as well as being able to research if there is other known activity in the area.

6. The credibility of the person submitting evidence will be taken into consideration. Any research organizations and related associated groups will be helpful. A phone number and email address will also be required. Some of the board members may call and talk to the submitter in person if there are questions. Any false information will make for an automatic dismissal of the review process.

7. One thing to remember is that the Evidence Review Board does these reviews in their spare time, so it can be a slow process. The Board will do all they can to get it done quickly after submission, but with family, jobs, and other things that normal people have, it may take a while.

8. The Board will do a preliminary review of the photographs and required documentation and then notify the submitter if they wish to have the evidence shipped to the Board for review. The submitter will be responsible for packing, insuring and shipping costs.

9. Board Protocol for processing the evidence

·         When the potential evidence is received by the Board, the Chain of Custody protocol will be followed by the Board and anyone else involved in examining and evaluating the evidence.

·         Several members of the Board may want to evaluate the evidence in members may seek the advice of experts to evaluate the potential evidence. Experts may include medical physicians, dentists, university professors, anthropologists, criminologists, forensic experts, or other professional laboratory services. In some cases, carbon dating and/or DNA analysis may be needed. Any cost of shipping and insurance may be paid by members of the Board, or may be the responsibility of the submitter. These issues will be discussed with the submitter prior to any further shipping.

·         Lab fees and expert analysis may cost a considerable amount of money, so a source of funding may be required before the analysis can be completed. Other organizations or institutions of higher learning may have grants available. Otherwise, the submitter may be asked to provide the funding. If a source of funding cannot be found, and if the submitter is unwilling to be responsible for funding the fees, the examination may be discontinued and the evidence will be disposed in accordance with the submitter’s wishes.

10. After the MABRC has concluded the review, a report will be written and released in the manner as stated. The MABRC will be posting the report on its website in the appropriate area that is open to the public to view with ALL credit given to the submitter and any group affiliations.

11. The entire purpose for the Review Board is to make a public database of suspected Bigfoot evidence. With these animals being as complex as they appear to be, all credible evidence collected will hopefully help to prove the existence of the species. Any and all of the decisions of the Review Board will be made on the evidence submitted. And if in the future any new evidence comes forth to make a stronger or weaker case for the submitted evidence, the Review Board reserves the right to change the decision of the original submission, if warranted.

12. Although the Board cannot positively confirm any evidence as having been from a Sasquatch, there are a number of criterion that will be used by the Board to eliminate other possibilities, particularly misidentification of human hosts or known animal hosts and intentional hoaxes.

13. Based on the analysis, the Board will formulate a response and an opinion that will be cited in the final report.

 

14. The footprint evidence will be returned to the person who submitted it for evaluation, or disposed in accordance with the submitter’s instructions.